previously mentioned work of Bloom and Keller of LFM (Learning For Mastery) and
PSI (Personalised System of Instruction) represent the achievements for the
neo-behaviourist ´systems´ approach to instruction. Both had their foundation
in the behavioural theories psychological principles to the technology of
education and have shown to generate a significant educational result.
behavioural approaches to instruction, such as programmed instruction are
outcome-based and emphasise small step size, overt responses, and frequent
reinforcement of responses. From
the behavioural viewpoint the learner respond to a stimuli during instruction.
Through reinforcement, successive approximations of the response are
transformed into desired behaviour. Only
the overt response is accepted, learners thought is virtually ignored.
Learning is understood to be the result of casual link between
instructional stimuli and student responses, which are strengthened or weakened
cognitive approaches, on the other hand, emphasise learning as a process, and
the role of the student in mediating learning.
The learner construct knowledge and meaning by adjust mental
representations. The model for
information processing theory explains how the cognitive approaches view
learning. Information is sensed
from the environment and placed in
the short term memory, where it is either discharged or processed more
completely. Encoding occurs when
new and existing data is integrated in the rehearsal buffer and then transferred
into the long term memory. Long
term memory comprises schemata or content domain, which are organised networks
of replaced knowledge and each schema provides slots into which new knowledge is
placed. These schemata are
regularly restored and restructured through new knowledge, while additional
connections among related schemata are made.
Cognitive approaches emphasise strategies that foster meaningful learning
and regulate the flow of information among the environment, short term and long
term memory (Hannafin,M.J., Hooper,S.R., 1993).
instructional designers it is important to have a sound learning theory base to
guide instructional design. In an
article about educational technology in the 1990´s Cass G. Gentry and Josephine
Csete talk about the division between educational technologists over the
theories of education, they say :
other beliefs, specific theories, once accepted by an individual group, may be
clung to the tenaciously and passed on to disciples as the only legitimate theories for the profession.
Many of the good aspects of a prolonged period of detailed research by
behaviourists are being ignored by some, while others refuse to consider the
contributions that the cognitive field theories can make.
Skinner’s paper in the American
Psychologist (1984) takes educators to task for their failure to effectively
use the findings of behavioural research. Currently,
information processing or cognitive field theories are in the ascendancy among
academicians. It is not our intention to argue here that the one theory is
inherently better than another, but rather to suggest that educational
technologists be more involved in a mutually beneficial relationship in which
they grow by applying diverse learning theories and in turn provide a testing
ground for theories(p.24).
and Csete argue that most of the educational technology research to day is
characterised by lack of planned, concerted action to firmly ground discipline
in research. Because of this
inadequacies of this current researches ´little is being done to relate
theories of learning to other important theoretical areas, such as system,
instruction, design, evaluation, communication, and change theories´.
Roundstone the band see their site here
Some photos from Iceland see here
Sólrún B. Kristinsdóttir © 2001 Síðast uppfært 21.10.2008